Points (n.) 1. marks of punctuation. 2. something that has position but not extension, as the intersection of two lines. 3. salient features of a story, epigram, joke, etc.: he hit the high points. 4. (slang; U.S.) needles for intravenous drug use.
Editor’s Note: Between June 22 and June 25, the Alcohol and Drugs History Society organized its biennial conference in Utrecht, The Netherlands. In three day-by-day reports, some attendees will reflect upon the proceedings and their highlights. Today’s post was provided by Richard Robinson, urban historian at the University of Helsinki.
“The interdisciplinary spirit of enthusiastic curiosity in classrooms doubling up as impromptu saunas”
By Richard Robinson
At 8.45 AM on a fine Friday morning, the opening sessions of the Alcohol and Drugs History Society conference feel very far away indeed. Our party has left its hotel on the outskirts of Utrecht to walk to the university, but we have naively strolled straight onto a bike superhighway during rush hour. This is no place for the humble pedestrian: hundreds of cyclists stream past as we stumble along the grass verge, scouring the foliage in vain for an exit route. The sole geographer in our party is visibly flummoxed, and the day’s panels disappear in a whirl of spokes and fixed gears. Our destiny, it seems, is to be a very Dutch form of road kill.
Thankfully, two English literature scholars emerged as the unlikely heroes, navigating us successfully over a two-tiered canal to the comparative safety of a residential road. Breathing a sigh of relief, the one thing I really needed at that moment was a strong drink-and-drugs-themed conference. Luckily, Friday’s papers did not disappoint: fascinating new research was introduced and old narratives were undermined in an atmosphere that exuded bonhomie and warmth, a result of both an interdisciplinary spirit of enthusiastic curiosity and classrooms that doubled up as impromptu saunas.
Given the subject matter and conference title, it is perhaps redundant to observe that regulation was one of the recurring themes of the day, but those presentations that considered its porosity and cultural form were particularly enlightening. Focusing on seventeenth-century England, Alex Taylor adeptly demonstrated how the illicit trade in bulk tobacco by the very sailors responsible for its transportation meant that attempts to license and restrict the good largely went up in smoke. Ryosuke Yokoe traced the shifting medical conception of cirrhosis in Britain – from alcoholic’s disease in the Edwardian period to a consequence of poor nutrition in the 1940s – and argued convincingly that this was due to a softening of the political climate surrounding drink. Finally, Rachel McErlain considered the soft regulation of moral suasion, immersing the audience in the melodramas of mid-nineteenth-century temperance tracts and assessing the ways in which they depicted drinking as anathema to feminine respectability.
McErlain’s paper was also one of a clutch that addressed the significant roles of women in drink history: as victims, as sellers and as reformers. Showing that a lack of extant source material does not preclude comprehensive analysis, Jenni Lares used lower court records and Judith Bennett’s seminal work on England to examine the status and rights of female publicans in early modern Finland. Victoria Afanasyeva discussed the increasing prominence of women in the French temperance movement from the late nineteenth century, and reminded us that such campaigns did gain traction in countries beyond the traditional temperance cultures.
Indeed, throughout the day established truths of drink history were called into question. Richard Yntema’s meticulous account of the development of the distilling industry in Holland went against the grain of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that spirits were being commercially produced already in the late sixteenth century. In her expansive discussion of transatlantic temperance connections, Annemarie McAllister stressed that, in spite of the two-way cultural transfer that clearly took place, the British movement always remained on the fringes of mainstream society, in contrast to its US counterpart. And in the keynote lecture, Phil Withington confronted his 2010 economic-history-seminar demons in style, roundly – or perhaps rather trigonally – disabusing the notion that per capita consumption should be the pre-eminent means of understanding intoxicant use. Railing, too, against presentist historiography, and drawing on theory by Elizabeth Shove, amongst others, he outlined the premise of his multidisciplinary consumption triangle, which puts the study of the production, control and representation of social practice firmly at the palpitating heart of alcohol and drug history.
Post-plenary, it was resolved to put social practice theory to the test, and we meandered along the riverside into a park for a Dutch festival. Unlike Dutch courage and Dutch uncles, it should be noted that this is intended as an entirely positive epithet: not every country can combine large-scale public drinking and good cheer so easily. With pockets full of munten (a cardboard currency of indeterminate value) and power in numbers, we occupied a coveted picnic table and began to explore the multitude of food stalls and beer tents in the vicinity. Sadly, I was not party to the astonishing debauchery that no doubt occurred as the night progressed: ever the professional, I left early to prepare for my presentation. However, lacking the advanced orientation skills of literary scholars, I proceeded to finish the day as I began it, by getting hopelessly lost.
Editor’s Note: Frequent readers may be familiar with the blog’s ongoing promotion of new, relevant dissertation research, but periodically we also highlight work published in journals and other peer-reviewed outlets. Each of the articles below appeared in recent issues of the journal Contemporary Drug Problems, concerning drug withdrawals, substitution, and maintenance. All titles contain links to the respective articles. Enjoy!
Bjarke Nielsen, Esben Houborg
Abstract: In Denmark, outpatient substitution treatment has traditionally been associated with a great deal of ambivalence and control. Until the late 1990s, a condition for entering substitution treatment was that the user ceased using illicit drugs. Failure to comply would in many cases mean expulsion from treatment. However, since the late 1990s/early 2000s, a more liberal substitution treatment policy has developed, which recognizes continued attachments to illicit drugs and drug scenes for many drug users. With this shift in treatment rationality, treatment encounters between social workers and drug users can be analyzed as experiments enacting new relations between legal and illegal drugs, bodies, and environments. Drawing analytical inspiration from material semiotics and actor-network theory, this article focuses on how “outside” relations are articulated and become visible “inside” outpatient treatment encounters. Against this backdrop, we analyze the trial and error involved in stabilization as a set of ongoing processes relating to configurations of heterogeneous material networks. The article presents by way of a case study a detailed analysis of these entanglements, drawing on data from two qualitative studies of outpatient substitution treatment in Denmark.
Ian WalmsleyRead More »
Editor’s note: In today’s post, we highlight a few recent dissertations on drug use among college students and its regulation by authorities. These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen, which was formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but is now periodically featured on the Points blog. Contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.
E-Cigarette Adoption and Use Intention Among College Students: Determinants and Warning Label Effects
Author: Lee, Hsiao-Yun
Abstract: The electronic nicotine delivery system (also known as the e-cigarette) is a recently-invented battery-operated device that mimics smoking by delivering nicotine without burning tobacco. Without governmental regulation, the e-cigarette has been heavily promoted in the United States (US) and have aroused a vigorous debate over its health effects. Supporters believe that the e-cigarette is a safer alternative for smokers because it does not contain toxicants such as tar and carbon monoxide, while opponents are concerned that e-cigarettes will re-normalize smoking behavior and may serve as a gateway to traditional cigarettes. According to a national report, the percentage of use of non-traditional tobacco products is increasing among college students, implying that more college students are at risk of being addicted to nicotine. Previous studies also show that this age group has the highest rate of ever-use e-cigarettes, indicating an urgent need to investigate college students’ e-cigarette use. Because e-cigarettes are not currently regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), manufacturers are not obligated to include warning labels on their packages. Nevertheless, some e-cigarette companies have created their own warning labels without examining their effects. This study consists of two sub-studies. Sub-study 1 investigated college students’ e-cigarette use by examining differences in characteristics at different e-cigarette adoption levels based on the Diffusion of Innovation Theory. Sub-study 2 aimed to investigate the effect of e-cigarette warning labels on college students’ intention to use e-cigarettes by examining two warning labels, one generated by the FDA and one by e-cigarette companies. A total of 1,198 undergraduate college students at a Midwestern university, aged eighteen to twenty-five, were surveyed in September and October 2015. Multinomial logistic regression and Heckman two-step selection procedures were conducted to examine the influence of determinants on levels of e-cigarette adoption and transition. Structural equation modeling analyses were implemented to examine the effect of warning labels on college students’ intention to use e-cigarettes. The findings of this study show that e-cigarette users are more likely to be current substance users and that flavor is a strong factor inducing college students to use e-cigarettes. Rather than seeking to reduce stress, college students use e-cigarettes for positive sensory experiences and care more about their appearance than their health. Regarding warning label effects, the warning label proposed by the FDA was found to reduce college students’ intention to use e-cigarettes via increasing their perceived risk of e-cigarette use. The FDA warning is more effective than the warning label created by e-cigarette companies. The resultant findings not only could be used as references for future e-cigarette regulations and interventions, but also could serve as direct evidence for establishing future mandates, including the regulations of label content and design.Read More »
Our editorial team hopes everyone enjoyed their own form of revelry today! Points returns with new content later this week.
Dr. Jane T. Merritt is an associate professor of history at Old Dominion University and author of the new book, The Trouble with Tea: The Politics of Consumption in the Eighteenth-Century Global Economy (Johns Hopkins, 2016).
Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.
The Trouble with Tea explores 18th century consumer culture, market economies, and their political use and meaning. The core of the book’s argument questions the old adage among economic historians that consumer demand drove merchants to provide an ever-increasing supply of goods, thus sparking a Consumer Revolution in the early eighteenth century. Tea presents a different picture. Instead, political concerns about the domination of Britain in a global economy and the corporate machinations of the English East India Company (EIC) in the 1720s and 1730s produced an over-supply of Chinese tea that the Company then funneled to North America, hoping to find a market. American consumers only slowly habituated themselves to the beverage, aided by the availability of Caribbean sugar. Still, American merchants and consumers took to tea by mid-century, even as colonial activists called for a boycott of British goods. Boston wasn’t the only place that held a “Tea Party” to protest imperial tax policy in late 1773. Citizens of Philadelphia, New York, Edenton, North Carolina, and Charleston also destroyed or forcibly returned the EIC tea commissioned for sale in North America. In truth, however, Americans did not reject luxury consumption or tea; they simply wanted quicker, easier access to foreign commercial markets, which they returned to soon after the American Revolution. Ironically, individual states and the new federal government established under the 1787 constitution revived taxes and tariffs on tea as a key source of revenue. Creating, then fulfilling consumer desires, has always been a driving force in the American economy.Read More »
The Alcohol and Drugs History Society convenes this weekend at Utrecht University in the Netherlands for its biennial meeting. The conference theme is “Drinking and Drug Policies in History: Contextualizing Causes and Consequences.” There, participants are presenting new research and charting the future of the field. In an opening keynote address delivered Friday evening, “The Consumption of Intoxicants in the Past – Old Problems, New Approaches,” Phil Withington suggested innovative methodologies to make sense of how and why people – and, importantly, which people – used intoxicants in the past. (Also be sure to check out Dr. Withington’s Intoxicant Project for more information on drug use in early modern Europe.)Read More »
by Kawal Deep Kour (PhD, Indian Institute of Technology)
As part of M.K. Gandhi’s call for non-cooperation with Indian colonial authority in 1921, abhorrence of drink and drugs were included on the agenda of the constructive programme of the movement. His promotion of temperance and adherence to the principle of non-violence were unique in Indian political culture and appreciated throughout the country. With Gandhi’s call to shun all intoxicants, including opium, ganja and liquor, prohibition as a policy initiative became a major plank of nationalist politics. The act of renouncing and liquor and drugs represented a sobering symbol of freedom from colonial bondage.
Under Gandhi’s direction, the self-purification movement implied that abstinence in regard of drink and drugs was to be the starting point in unshackling the country from imperial slavery. He said, “I hold drink to be more damnable than thieving and perhaps prostitution. If I was appointed dictator for one hour for all India, the first thing I would do would be to close without compensation all the liquor shops.”Read More »
Editor’s Note: Pamela Donovan is the author of Drink Spiking and Predatory Drugging: A Modern History (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016). She holds a PhD in Sociology from City University of New York Graduate Center. Donovan taught criminology and sociology courses for 20 years, and left academia to pursue freelance book editing and due diligence investigation. Her main areas of interest are drug and alcohol studies, as well as the small scholarly world of rumor studies. Her previous book was No Way of Knowing: Crime, Urban Legends and the Internet (Routledge, 2004).
1. Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.
Well, there are bartenders as part of general audience that might be interested in this topic, and then there are bartenders as bartenders, particularly the ones at nightclubs, who no doubt have an interesting front line view of the current date-rape-drugs scare.
As an interested general audience, I’d say that my book is about the ways in which the fear, and occasional reality, of using drugs surreptitiously on people turns out to be related to other dramatic changes in modernizing societies. These changes include the psycho-pharmaceutical revolution that begins in the mid-1800s and really takes off in the mid-20th century. Governments and medical authorities try to create boundaries around usage that ordinary people resist and find ways around. We long for a series of precise and perfect cures, but we, at the same time, fear being controlled by chemically induced states of mind. We don’t feel like we can balance those benefits and risks ourselves. We are techno-utopians, when we feel as if psycho-pharma can deliver us to our real selves, and five seconds later, we are techno-dystopians, feeling as is we are at the mercy of bad actors who want to turn us into zombies. Read More »
Editor’s Note: Frequent readers may be familiar with the blog’s ongoing promotion of new, relevant dissertation research, but periodically we also highlight work published in journals and other peer-reviewed outlets. Each of the articles below appeared in recent issues of the journal Contemporary Drug Problems and concern topics of interest in countries across Europe. All titles contain links to the respective articles. Enjoy!
“Addiction in Europe, 1860s-1960s: Concepts and Responses in Italy, Poland, Austria, and the United Kingdom”
Virginia Berridge, Alex Mold, Franca Beccaria, Irmgard Eisenbach-Stangl, Grazyna Herczynska, Jacek Moskalewicz, Enrico Petrilli, Suzanne Taylor
Abstract: Concepts play a central part in the formulation of problems and proposed solutions to the use of substances. This article reports the initial results from a cross European historical study, carried out to a common methodology, of the language of addiction and policy responses in two key periods, 1860–1930 and the 1950s and 1960s. It concludes that the language of addiction was varied and nonstandard in the first period. The Anglo-American model of inebriety did not apply across Europe but there was a common focus on theories of heredity and national degeneration. After World War II, there was a more homogenous language but still distinct national differences in emphasis and national interests and policy responses to different substances. More research will be needed to deepen understanding of the conditions under which these changes took place and the social and policy appeal of disease theories.Read More »
Claire Clark teaches at the University of Kentucky, where she is an assistant professor of Behavioral Science, secondarily appointed in the Department of History, and associated with the Program for Bioethics. The Recovery Revolution: The Battle Over Addiction Treatment in the United States (Columbia University Press, 2017) is a history of therapeutic community treatment for drug addiction.
1. Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.
The Recovery Revolution explores the rise of addiction treatment in the United States since the 1960s. It does this by tracing the development of a peer-led treatment model called the “therapeutic community” (TC). TCs in the US had their roots in a controversial California commune, Synanon, whose residents promoted a unique, neo-Victorian brand of drug treatment. At the time, addiction treatment was mostly limited to a few hospitals and correctional facilities; both elites and people struggling with addiction were frustrated with the existing options. A small group of self-described “ex-addicts” ignited a treatment revolution in response, and their moral treatment philosophy had an outsized influence on the industry that developed in the decades that followed.Read More »