Points Bibliography: Drugs, Addiction, and Other Diseases

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen. They were formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but are now periodically featured on the Points blog. For more information, contact Dr. Erlen through the above link.

Lung Cancer Stigma: Associated Variables and Coping Strategies

Author: Criswell, Kevin R.

Abstract: Lung cancer stigma is a burgeoning area of literature, yet two important questions remain unanswered: a) What are the associations between lung cancer stigma and psychosocial outcomes across lung cancer survivors with different smoking histories and b) how would lung cancer survivors describe their experience of coping strategies they utilize to cope with lung cancer stigma. This dissertation presents two studies that seek to answer the above-mentioned questions: a) a quantitative study that describes the rates of Personal Responsibility, Regret, and Medical Stigma and the associations between the above-mentioned constructs and psychosocial outcomes; and b) a qualitative study of coping strategies that lung cancer survivors reported utilizing in response to lung cancer stigma. Results from the quantitative study suggest that, while current and former smokers report significantly greater rates of Personal Responsibility and Regret when compared to never smokers, smoking status did not significantly affect the level of Medical Stigma reported by lung cancer survivors. The most common themes extracted from the qualitative data were coping strategies involving education, avoidance, support, helping others, acceptance, and assertive communication. Further research is needed to investigate exactly how lung cancer stigma relates to psychosocial outcomes As future interventions geared towards lung cancer stigma are developed and tested, it will be important to a) measure lung cancer stigma and its associated constructs (e.g., regret, guilt/shame, personal responsibility) with instruments that are firmly rooted in testable theoretical frameworks, b) track psychosocial outcome variables and their changes as a result of the treatment response via the intervention, c) and observe any differences in how stigma variables (e.g., perceived stigma and internalized stigma) might be associated differently with outcome variables and change over time differently depending on smoking history (e.g., comparing outcomes between ever vs. never smokers).

Publication year: 2016

ISBN: 9781339312569

Advisor: Owen, Jason E.

Committee members: Arechiga, Adam L.; Thoreson, Laura; Vermeersch, David

University/institution: Loma Linda University

Department: Psychology

 

An Exploratory Study of the Psychometric Analysis of the Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA) Scale Used for Progress Monitoring in an Inpatient Substance Abuse Group Treatment Setting

Author: Sharma, Tania

Abstract: Progress monitoring in the treatment of Substance Use Disorders (SUD) has been slowly evolving and has typically relied on a few brief measures such as the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS)/Group Session Rating Scale (GSRS). The Depression/Anxiety Negative Affect (DANA) scale, a recently developed progress monitoring measure, has shown good psychometric properties in individual counseling settings (Meier, 2012). This exploratory, naturalistic study of change in Negative Affect was the first to use the DANA Scale in a SUD inpatient group treatment program. Fourteen therapists at the Stutzman Addiction Treatment Center provided 377 DANA Scale ratings for 33 residents and obtained 305 ORS, 263 GSRS and 26 SRS ratings. The findings of the current study revealed that the DANA scale is a brief progress monitoring measure with adequate reliability for use in SUD individual and group counseling settings. Limitations included inter- and intra-clinician inconsistencies in completing the DANA Scale, resulting in lack of convergent validity with other measures and suggests additional clinician training could improve the utility of the DANA. An important implication of this study was that the DANA Scale provides clinicians an opportunity to track client Avoidance of Negative Affect, and hence, has a unique applicability for an SUD population.

 

 

Publication year: 2016

 

ISBN: 9781369185478

Advisors: Janikowski, Timothy P.; Meier, Scott T.

Committee member: Rutter, Michael E.

University/institution: State University of New York at Buffalo

Department: Counseling, School and Educational Psychology

 

The Impact of Marijuana Use on Memory in Patients with HIV/AIDS

Author: Skalski, Linda Marie

Abstract: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana use among this population is disproportionately common. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is virtually non-existent. The primary aim of this case-controlled study was to identify patterns of neurocognitive impairment among HIV patients who used marijuana compared to HIV patients who did not use drugs by comparing the groups on domain T-scores. Participants included 32 current marijuana users and 37 non-drug users. A comprehensive battery assessed substance use and neurocognitive functioning. Among the full sample, marijuana users performed significantly worse on verbal memory tasks compared to non-drug users and significantly better on attention/working memory tasks. A secondary aim of this study was to test whether the effect of marijuana use on memory was moderated by HIV disease progression, but these models were not significant. This study also examined whether the effect of marijuana use was differentially affected by marijuana use characteristics, finding that earlier age of initiation was associated with worse memory performance. These findings have important clinical implications, particularly given increased legalization of this drug to manage HIV infection.

 

Publication year: 2016

ISBN: 9781369025989

Advisors: Meade, Christina S.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

Committee members: Curry, John F.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.

University/institution: Duke University

Department: Psychology and Neuroscience

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CFP: Religion, Spirituality and Addiction Recovery

Points is happy to promote this Call for Papers for a special issue of the journal Implicit Religion, focused on “Religion, Spirituality and Addiction Recovery.” 

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Guest Editors: Dr Wendy Dossett & Liam Metcalf-White

This special issue of Implicit Religion engages critically and theoretically with the language of religion and spirituality as articulated within different presentations of addiction, and across a range of communities of addiction recovery.

Spirituality is commonly identified as a factor within a holistic approach to healthcare. The term is a placeholder for individualised orientation around existential questions and ultimate values. It is routinely reified as one dimension of human experience, amongst others, with a bearing on health and wellbeing outcomes. Rarely, (outside some specific religious contexts such as Christian Science), is spirituality explicitly presented as a totalising frame for understanding disease, or as comprising a treatment or cure. The fields of addiction and addiction recovery offer a distinctive counter-instance; in which the language of spirituality is often (though significantly, not always) positioned as both normative and fundamental.

This special issue explores how this language intersects with the notion of disease, and with ideas of agency, responsibility and free-will. It considers the place of narrative, community, social identity, and creativity in conceptions of recovery spirituality.   Articles may offer case studies in any recovery modality

  • Mutual Aid (12 Step/SMART/other);
  • Faith-based;
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy;
  • Mindfulness;
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy;
  • Motivational Interviewing;
  • Medication-Assisted Recovery;
  • Warrior Down;
  • Asset-Based Community Development;
  • Peer-Mentoring; etc

or with wider, culturally mediated and politicised notions of recovery, such as those found explicitly in the recovery advocacy movement, and implicitly within popular culture. Contributions may use lenses of gender, sexuality, class, culture, and stigma, among other critical and interdisciplinary approaches and perspectives, to illuminate liberative or oppressive aspects of recovery spirituality discourse.

Proposals are sought from for 6-8K word articles, shorter review/opinion pieces, as well as offers to respond to pieces submitted by others. Academics and researchers might consider collaborating with professional colleagues, recovery advocates, or people in recovery.  Please send a 300-500 word abstract/proposal to l.metcalfwhite@chester.ac.uk by 1st April 2018.  Submission deadline is November 1st 2018.

Reply to Jackie B., “Stretching the Boundaries of History”

Editor’s Note: In this, his last response to our roundtable on his work, Glenn C. responds to Jackie B. and her thoughts on how performance can extend the nature– and enhance the effects– of AA History.

“Glenn has insisted from the moment we first met in San Antonio that I am a historian. In the foreword to my second play, a history of the Twelve Traditions called Our Experience Has Taught Us, Glenn described me as a historian of ‘the new generation.’ [Nevertheless] for many years during our correspondence, I would counter that I was just a storyteller.”– Jackie B.

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Herodotus, ca. 484-425 BCE

Modern western history writing was begun by a classical Greek historian named Herodotus (c. 484–c. 425 B.C.) who coined the word “history” when he wrote his great work on the battle of Thermopylae, and the first Marathon runner, and the other famous events of the Persian wars. The Greek word he used to describe what he had written was the term historia. This originally meant inquiry or research; it came from the Greek word histôr, which meant a wise person, a person of knowledge, a good judge who understood moral right and wrong. So a historia was a research work which told exactly what had happened, with an implicit internal value system which made wise judgments as to who the praiseworthy people were, and who had fallen short. [1]

The English word “history” came from that Greek word, but so did the word “story,” which was originally just a shorter form of the word history. In modern English, a history is a collection of stories put together in a continuous narrative, with logical causal connections tying everything together.  Now I would like to make an observation here — one that is a bit over-generalized, I am sure, but nevertheless one with an underlying truth to it.

When Jews get together to talk about spirituality, they tend to be much less interested in philosophical theology than Christians. What they do love to debate and argue about is the Law, the Torah, the difference between good behavior and bad behavior down to the minute details.  Christians on the other hand will literally torture, imprison, and even kill one another over fine points of philosophical theology. Was Jesus Christ homousios (of the same essence) as God the Father? Or only homoiousios with an i (of a similar essence) to the Father? Or merely homoios (similar) to the Father? When we recite the Nicene Creed, do we say that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified” (as in the Roman Catholic Church), or do we say (with the Eastern Orthodox Church) that the Holy Spirit “proceeds from the Father,” leaving out the words “and the Son”? We had Catholics and Orthodox Christians killing one another other theological issues like that in the Balkans not that many years ago.

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Taking it too seriously.

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Reply to Bill White, “The Color and Character of AA”

Editor’s note: Today Glenn C. responds to Bill White’s discussion of his book about the varieties of AA experience across the color line. Next up: his thoughts on the recovery plays of Jackie B.

slayingWilliam L. White is the author of Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America (orig. pub. 1998, 2nd ed. 2014), the classic history of treatment and recovery programs, covering the entire course of modern American history since its beginning.  I first met him at the 6th National A.A. Archives Workshop in 2001, where I was on the planning committee, and he was the keynote speaker. After hearing him in person, I was so glad we had chosen him as our main speaker — it was the most fascinating and eye-opening talk on the general history of recovery in America I had ever heard. And Bill himself is a wonderful person. Close to Ernie Kurtz, he played a valuable role as one of the stabilizing figures in the AA History Lovers during the last two or three years of Nancy Olson’s life. And it was Bill who presided over Ernie’s memorial service in April of 2015 at Dawn Farm in Ypsilanti.

His book, Slaying the Dragon, made it clear that a really good and thorough history of A.A. would have to supply material about the context in which the new A.A. movement had developed. Nothing historical comes into existence out of a complete vacuum, and in A.A.’s case, there was a long history in the United States of trying various methods for dealing with both alcoholism and drug addiction. Some of these had a strong influence on early AA principles and methods — and also on struggles and controversies in which AA became involved later on, as we can see from Nancy Olson’s book With a Lot of Help from Our Friends. Parts of Bill White’s book and parts of Nancy Olson’s book could be read quite profitably in conjunction with one another. As Bill White says, we need to look at the history of early black A.A. in the context of the broader social and political movements in which it occurred.

WASHINGTON, D.C. Of the three earliest black A.A. groups, the social and political background of the Washington, D.C. group was the clearest. It was founded by Dr. James C. Scott, Jr., who had earned both an undergraduate degree and an M.D. from Howard University, one of the two top historically black universities. Dr. Scott, in other words, was an educated black man of the professional class who was trained at one of the major twentieth century centers for the black revolution which arose in the United States during the twentieth century. Read More »

Reply to “Rich Dubiel Meets Glenn C.”

Editor’s Note: Today we feature the second response by Glenn C. to his interlocutors in our roundtable. Stay tuned for more this Thursday!

WashingtonWe would be severely disparaging of scholars in American History and American Studies if all they ever published about the period of the American Revolution were biographies of George Washington. This is not to minimize the importance of the first president, but there were many other people who also made major and necessary contributions. And yet AA history studies has at times tended to focus so much on Bill Wilson and his small circle of close associates, that one has to look far for studies on many other people and topics.

Rich Dubiel’s 2004 book The Road to Fellowship: The Role of the Emmanuel Movement and the Jacoby Club in the Development of Alcoholics Anonymous, was however one of the major works which endeavored to significantly broaden the history of the AA movement. [1] I have tried to contribute to the wider history of AA myself in some of the books I have written and in the materials I have posted on the Hindsfoot Foundation website. So I was thrilled when Ernie Kurz had Rich contact me, and I realized that Rich and I were like-minded souls in so many ways. His book expanded my own horizons enormously. I tremendously enjoyed every minute of getting the book ready for print. And it was a book that was going to have an impact.

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Rowland Hazard, Not in 1931

The first bombshell that Rich’s book dropped was when he proved that the “orthodox” or traditional AA answer to when Rowland Hazard III was psychoanalyzed by Carl Jung — 1931 — could not possibly be correct. He showed from a detailed analysis of correspondence and financial records in the Hazard family papers that there was no time in Rowland Hazard’s busy schedule during 1931 in which he could have spent an extensive period in Switzerland undergoing treatment by Jung. What made this a bombshell was that if Rowland could not have gone to Jung in that year — the date given in all the older AA literature — then did he in fact undergo treatment by Jung at all? Was the whole story only a myth? Read More »

Reply to Arthur S., “AA History and AA Myth”

Editor’s Note: To round out our Points Roundtable on the contributions of AA historian Glenn C., we turn to the man himself! Over the next week, we’ll post Glenn’s replies to the pieces that Art S., Rich Dubiel, Bill White, and Jackie Bedzinski have published here in the last month. Our series will take us right up to Valentine’s day– at which point, everyone in America is going to need to stop loving Glenn and shift their affection to other, more properly commoditized objects! 

Arthur S. played a truly major role in one of our most important A.A. archival resources, the AA History Lovers web group (the AAHL). [1] At its height, this site had almost 3,000 listed members from all over the earth, including the United States, Canada, the U.K., Ireland, Mexico, Belgium, the Scandinavian countries, Australia, and India, to name just a few of the far flung lands where it had members. But the actual number of people who were affected by the web group was far higher. There were many who read the group’s postings on a regular basis without having signed up on the membership list, since anyone who had a computer and access to the internet could read all the messages.

AAHL logo (2)At least 90% of the people who had authored the best books on AA history were members of the AAHL, as were at least 90% of the top archivists, rare book specialists and other historical researchers in the field. The web group quickly gained a reputation as the most dependable single source of historical information about A.A. If you wanted to find out what the real experts said — the most knowledgeable and competent scholars and researchers in the field — the AA History Lovers would give you the best-documented and most up-to-date information known. And it would also usually be one of the first places to publish information about newly discovered documents and facts, along with notices of the most recent publications on AA history. [2]Read More »

Points Bibliography: Marijuana, Memory, and Craving

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen. They were formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but are now periodically featured on the Points blog. For more information, contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.

Cannabis Users’ Experience of Cannabis Craving: A Test of the Cue-Reactivity Model

Author: Loflin, Mallory J. E.

Abstract: Despite craving’s emphasis in treatment programs, little research has been conducted that specifically focuses on cannabis craving. Cannabis use, however, is the second most commonly cited reason for entering treatment for substance abuse and dependency. An understanding of how cannabis users experience craving is necessary. The current study compared heavy/daily cannabis users with infrequent users on measures of craving following presentation of cannabis cues. Hypotheses predicted changes in physiological (heart rate, galvanic skin response) and cognitive (simple reaction time, attentional bias) correlates of craving, and increased self-reported craving following cannabis cue exposure. Results found no significant increase in most indicators of craving. Only galvanic skin response was impacted by presentation of drug cues. Findings are inconsistent with previously published work on cannabis craving, suggesting the need for further research.

Publication year: 2016

ISBN: 9781339998435

Advisor: Earleywine, Mitch

Committee members: Gordis, Elana; Hormes, Julia

University/institution: State University of New York at Albany

Department: Clinical Psychology

 

The Impact of Marijuana Use on Memory in Patients with HIV/AIDS

Author: Skalski, Linda Marie

Abstract: The most robust neurocognitive effect of marijuana use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and marijuana use among this population is disproportionately common. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring marijuana and HIV is virtually non-existent. The primary aim of this case-controlled study was to identify patterns of neurocognitive impairment among HIV patients who used marijuana compared to HIV patients who did not use drugs by comparing the groups on domain T-scores. Participants included 32 current marijuana users and 37 non-drug users. A comprehensive battery assessed substance use and neurocognitive functioning. Among the full sample, marijuana users performed significantly worse on verbal memory tasks compared to non-drug users and significantly better on attention/working memory tasks. A secondary aim of this study was to test whether the effect of marijuana use on memory was moderated by HIV disease progression, but these models were not significant. This study also examined whether the effect of marijuana use was differentially affected by marijuana use characteristics, finding that earlier age of initiation was associated with worse memory performance. These findings have important clinical implications, particularly given increased legalization of this drug to manage HIV infection.

ISBN: 9781369025989

Advisor: Meade, Christina S.   Sikkema, Kathleen J.

Committee member: Curry, John F.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.

University/institution: Duke University

Department: Psychology and Neuroscience

 

The Influence of Doctoral Psychology Trainees’ Personal Cannabis Use, Perceptions of Cannabis’ Risks, and Attitudes toward Substance Use on Ability to Identify Cannabis Use Disorder

Author: Stratyner, Alexandra G.

Abstract: The incidence of cannabis use disorder is increasing across the United States as a function of increased cannabis use (Hasin et al., 2015); accordingly, it is critical that mental healthcare professionals be able to accurately identify cannabis use disorder. In light of this imperative, the current study explored potential barriers to diagnosing cannabis use disorder among doctoral psychology trainees. Participants (N = 123) were doctoral students in clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and related disciplines. Utilizing a quasi-experimental analogue design, the study examined whether doctoral psychology trainees’ personal cannabis use predicted their perceptions of the risks of cannabis use and attitudes toward substance use. Additionally, the study explored whether doctoral psychology trainees’ personal cannabis use histories, perceptions of cannabis’ risks, and attitudes toward substance use would predict accurate diagnosis of cannabis use disorder. A series of t-tests revealed that trainees’ beliefs about the risks of cannabis use and attitudes toward substance use varied with history and recency of personal cannabis use. Additionally, partial correlation analyses revealed that doctoral psychology trainees’ perceptions of cannabis’ risks were negatively correlated with select attitudes toward substance use. Despite these findings, the study found that none of the attitudes explored significantly predicted diagnostic decisions among trainees. Additionally, contrary to study hypotheses, current cannabis use among doctoral psychology trainees increased the likelihood that trainees would accurately make a diagnosis of cannabis use disorder. Implications for graduate training, clinical practice, and public health are considered and recommendations for future research are provided.

Publication year: 2016

ISBN: 9781339822839

Advisor: Palmer, Laura K.

Committee members: Cole, Brian P.; Farrelly, Margaret Jones; Smith, John

University/institution: Seton Hall University

Department: Professional Psychology and Family Therapy

Stretching the Boundaries of “History”

Editor’s note: Today sees the final installment of the Points tribute to AA historian Glenn C.  Commentator Jackie B. graduated in 2002 with a degree in Theater and Performance Studies from U.C. Berkeley.  Sober since 2006, she is the founder and Artistic Director of Recovery Works Theater (RWT) in San Francisco. Her work has been seen by tens of thousands of recovering alcoholics and addicts throughout the United States in a range of venues from convention centers and black box theaters to county jails. Rooted in rigorous research and a reverence for history, Jackie’s plays seek to create a living connection between the audience’s personal experience and the experiences of the early members and groups of Alcoholics Anonymous and other Twelve Step fellowships. Her most recent work, I Am Responsible, premiered in February 2017 in San Francisco.

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In 2008, I began writing original plays about A.A. history, specifically created for performers and audiences in Twelve Step recovery. My interest in A.A. history was sparked when I was two years sober by a San Francisco old-timer during a Traditions study who shared a story about Joe McQ. of the Joe and Charlie Big Book study series. That’s how I learned that “Big Book” Joe, as he was called back home in Arkansas, was the first black man to get sober in A.A. in Little Rock. That was the night I learned about the lengths that many members had to go through to receive the same opportunity I had been so generously given, without question or demand, at my first A.A. meeting.

I was introduced to Glenn’s work while researching my first A.A. history play, In Our Own Words: Pioneers of Alcoholics Anonymous. Written in the documentary style of The Laramie Project, a tradition also known as verbatim theater, the dialogue was taken word for word from primary material, including A.A. speaker tapes, group histories, Grapevine stories and the book, Alcoholics Anonymous. The second half of the play was devoted to Third Tradition stories, stories like that of Joe McQ., and other marginalized people who paved a way inside the fellowship, creating a safe space for future members who identify as women, LGBTQ, young people and people of color.

I very much wanted to include the story of an early African-American woman in the program. Try as I might, I couldn’t find a single story from the 1940’s. Not in the Big Book or the Grapevine digital archives. Almost ready to admit defeat, I came across a mention of early black A.A. members in a 2005 book called The Factory Owner and the Convict: Vol. 1 of the Lives and Teachings of the A.A. Old-Timers by Glenn C. The text was originally written for local intergroups, to show how A.A. started in the cities and towns along the St. Joseph River, as it wound its way through Indiana and Michigan to the Great Lakes. Requests for copies came in from all around the country, and the author, a Professor of History and Religious Studies at Indiana University in South Bend, self-published it and made an excerpt available on www.hindsfoot.org. I eagerly ordered the book, and when it arrived I found a remarkable interview between Glenn and a black woman named Jimmy M., who got sober in A.A. in 1948. From that interview I was able to construct a monologue for Jimmy, creating one of the most powerful and revelatory scenes of In Our Own Words:

My little troupe of actors in recovery began to perform In Our Own Words outside of San Francisco. We traveled all over California. We performed in church sanctuaries, middle school auditoriums and jail pods. Over and over again, audience members would come up to me afterwards and thank me for sharing Joe and Jimmy’s stories, telling me that for the first time, they felt a part of A.A. history too.  That was all made possible by Glenn’s dedicated and meticulous work.  Finally, in 2010, we were given the opportunity to perform at a major international conference in San Antonio. I invited Glenn, reaching him through the AA History Lovers Yahoo Group. I didn’t know if he would make it, whether he would even get through the doors. The conference plays were so popular that year, the hotel had to shut down its elevators to keep more conventioneers from trying to get into the packed hall, far exceeding its maximum capacity. And still the conventioneers came, sneaking in through fire doors, climbing ten sets of stairs, and even stealing our set furniture from onstage to snag a seat.

After the performance, Glenn introduced himself. I wish I could remember more of that first face-to-face conversation. But I remember he hugged me and he hugged and took pictures with the lovely actress who played Jimmy. We exchanged numbers and emails and less than a week later, Glenn wrote to me, and that was the start of a seven-year friendship and mentorship that has shaped me as a thinker, writer and person in recovery.

When Glenn and his delightful wife Sue decided to winter in Fremont, California, my sponsee and I became regular guests at his new home. Anyone who has had the pleasure of spending one-on-one time with Glenn can attest to the mischievous delight he takes in the exchange of ideas and stories, everything from tidbits of oral history and classical literature, recovery wisdom and philosophical quandaries. Nestled deep in a cozy armchair, Glenn proved himself both an emphatic listener and a consummate teacher, insisting from the moment we first met in San Antonio that I am a historian.

In the foreword to my second play, a history of the Twelve Traditions called Our Experience Has Taught Us, Glenn described me as a historian of “the new generation.” For many years during our correspondence, I would counter that I was just a storyteller. Even as I began to do more rigorous primary research in archives around the country, I held back from calling myself a historian. I was a “history buff,” an A.A. history nerd. It wasn’t until I shared a stage with Glenn at the 2016 A.A. History Symposium at the Sedona Mago Retreat that I embraced the mantle of historian.  Glenn C., who is arguably the most prolific writer of recovery history, generously shared his 45-minute presentation slot with a young female artist and scholar, as we shared the experiences of early gay, lesbians and people of color in A.A., including the stories of Jimmy M. and Joe McQ. It was a moment I will never forget; my journey with Glenn had come full circle. I will cherish every moment I have spent with Glenn, every email, every phone call, and every story. I could not be more proud to call him a mentor, a friend, and a fellow traveler on the broad highway.