Points Interview: Stephanie Schmitz, Purdue University Archives & Special Collections

Editor’s Note: This interview was conducted and written by Lucas Richert, Chancellor’s Fellow in Health History at Strathclyde and co-editor in chief of Social History of Alcohol and Drugs. Enjoy! 

Stephanie Schmitz is the Betsy Gordon Archivist for Psychoactive Substances Research at the Purdue University Archives & Special Collections, where she is responsible for building collections pertaining to psychedelic research, and ensuring that these materials are discoverable and accessible in perpetuity.  

The conversation took place on June 8, 2018. It has been edited for brevity and clarity.

** 

Stephanie and I sat down to talk in the Purdue Memorial Union’s coffee shop early on a Friday morning and immediately realized we couldn’t stay. There was far too much activity. It was incredibly loud. “I know another spot,” she told me.  

Five minutes later, we found ourselves in an adjacent building. Stephanie was sipping coffee, as was I. We were set. Except not. A speaker on the floor beside us unexpectedly started up and the Kongos’ song “Come with me now” boomed. So we swiftly collected our belongings and moved across the room to a quieter table. 

“Alright,” Stephanie laughed. “Now I can think.” 

Continue reading →

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The Points Interview: Emily Dufton

Today’s Points Interview is with Dr. Emily Dufton, Points managing editor emeritus and author of the new book, Grass Roots: The Rise, Fall, and Rise of Marijuana in America – available today!

Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.
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Over the past five decades, grassroots activists have shifted America’s marijuana laws three times. In the 1970s, they passed decriminalization laws in a dozen states. Then, in response to rising rates of adolescent marijuana use, a movement of concerned parents recriminalized the drug in the 1980s, ultimately influencing how Nancy and Ronald Reagan approached drug use as well. But in the 1990s and 2000s, a new movement emerged, one that tied legalization to movements for social justice and civil rights. This new push for legalization seems unstoppable today — after all, 8 states and Washington, DC, have legalized recreational use, while 29 states and DC have medical marijuana laws — but I argue that the history of marijuana activism shows the cyclical nature of the drug’s social acceptance and surrounding policy. New grassroots movements continue to form, and, depending on a variety of factors, including who is in the White House and how marijuana is generally viewed, today’s push for legalization could birth a movement for criminalization tomorrow. Ultimately, I believe that the pendulum on public approval of marijuana won’t stop swinging any time soon. Continue reading →

The Points Interview: Ingrid Walker

The subject of today’s Points Interview is Dr. Ingrid Walker, discussing her new book, High: Drugs, Desire, and a Nation of Users (University of Washington Press, 2017). She has written and presented at length on the topic, including at a 2013 TEDx event. Follow her on Twitter.

Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.

41if22hzijl-_sx331_bo1204203200_If I ask you to picture a drug user, chances are that you won’t envision yourself. But nearly everyone is a psychoactive drug user. If you start your day with coffee or tea, if you enjoy drinking in this bar, or if you use psychotherapeutics–antidepressants or anti-anxiety meds–you are a drug user. The question is, why don’t we see ourselves as users? Because some drugs are so socially accepted that they are invisible. And other drugs have been vilified to the point of monstrosity.

People in the United States have been bombarded with stories about good drugs and bad drugs, from Prozac to bath salts. But that distinction is cultural—we made it up. It reflects assumptions that are not based in science, social science, or even personal experience. In High I tell the story about how and why we have come to these misconceptions. My book traces the cultural context of how we got here, to a place that so misunderstands drugs and users. It also proposes what we can do to change this. Continue reading →

The Points Interview: Dan Malleck

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Dan Malleck

Dan Malleck is an Associate Professor of Health Sciences at Brock University in St. Catherines, Ontario. He is the author of Try to Control Yourself: The Regulation of Public Drinking in Post-Prohibition Ontario, 1927-1944 (University of British Colombia Press, 2012) and co-editor, with Cheryl Krasnick Warsh, of Consuming Modernity: Gendered Behaviour and Consumerism Before the Baby Boom (UBC Press, 2014). Try to Control Yourself won the Canadian Historical Association’s Clio Prize for Best Book in Ontario History in 2013, and Malleck’s writing has appeared in news outlets including the Globe and Mail and The National Post. He earned his PhD from Queen’s University in Kingston, ON. Malleck’s most recent book is When Good Drugs Go Bad: Opium, Medicine, and the Origins of Canada’s Drug Laws (UBC Press, 2015), which he discusses below.

Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.

This book examines the social and cultural forces that combined to encourage the creation of Canada’s drug laws.  It argues that we need to get past the simplistic statement that drug laws were racist reactions to foreigners in our country, and have complex roots.

What do you think a bunch of alcohol and drug historians might find particularly interesting about your book?

The book is not a political history, but it looks at how various cultural, economic, professional and social forces converged in the early 1900s to make it seem necessary to create federal laws restricting opiates and other mind altering drugs.  It takes long time-
line, following the threads of influence as they grew and expanded, gathering energy and cultural currency. I use the metaphor of streams converging into raging river.  

The main question driving the research was “why did we decide that addiction was a problem that needed federal intervention” and “when did it become okay for the government to severely restrict sales of certain substances that were previously generally unrestricted.”  I argue that Canada’s first drug laws were not laws against recreational use, but pharmacy laws that made it restricted certain substances determined to be dangerous. These laws, the results of political lobbying to deal with a social problem, made such restrictions acceptable.  From that point, the definition of “danger” expanded from the potential of death, to the potential for serious damage, to the potential for dependency.  The precedent for national drug regulation, then, was set in the pharmacy acts, which were a combination of professional pressure and social concern over access to poisonous substances.  

whengooddrugsI also challenge a dominant and reductionist narrative that the opium acts of the early 1900s were simply attacks on Chinese people in Canada.  This argument misses the power of the idea that drugs were a problem.  When William Lyon MacKenzie King argued, in his preamble to the 1908 report encouraging parliament to create the Opium Act, that opium’s “baneful influences” were “too well known to require comment” he was channeling that broader concern based upon the familiarity of most Canadians with the challenges of opium as a medicine and a habit-forming drug. He himself had experience of these baneful influences in his personal life, and most Canadians probably knew someone who had an opium habit. Most had probably consumed opium at some point.  To reduce this to an attack on the Chinese is simply a distortion of the past, often for current political reasons.  Moreover, the same session of parliament that passed the Opium Act also passed a Proprietary and Patent Medicines Act, dealing with another significant drug problem.  This book springs from that contention that reducing the drug laws to racist reactionism doesn’t do the story justice, nor does it help us understand the complexity of our drug laws in general, and the challenges of reforming them.

Now that the hard part is over, what is the thing YOU find most interesting about your book?

It’s the same page length as my first book even though it’s much longer, but took less time to write. Figure that out.

Every research project leaves some stones unturned. What stone are you most curious to see turned over soon?

One thing I was never able to do due to the sheer volume of material and time it would take was track the changes in prescribing patterns as different laws came into effect. I have a database of probably hundreds of thousands of prescriptions from pharmacy records that span various provincial and federal law changes, and I wonder if those laws, restricting access to substances like opium, affected the way doctors prescribed, or the way customers purchased (or pharmacists dispensed). I suspect it did, but without a massive team, grant, and hiccup in space/time, I won’t be able to do that.

BONUS QUESTION: In an audio version of this book, who should provide the narration?

Aaron Paul.

 

The Points Interview: William White

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William White

Today’s Points interviewee is William White, author of such books as Slaying the Dragon:  The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America; The History of Addiction Counseling in the United States; Drunkard’s Refuge:  The Lessons of the New York State Inebriate Asylum (with John Crowley); and Alcohol Problems in Native America: The Untold Story of Resistance and Recovery (with Don Coyhis). His latest book is Recovery Rising: A Retrospective of Addiction Treatment and Recovery Advocacy.

Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.

Let me first say that readers who know me well will find this an amusing question. Recovery Rising is a collection of 350+ stories drawn from my nearly half-century of work in the addictions field. The vignettes honor my peers who have long worked in this special service ministry and mark the passing of a torch to a new generation of addiction professionals and recovery advocates. It is both a personalized history of the evolving world of addiction treatment over the closing decades of the 20th century and the opening decades of the 21st century and a collection of reflections about how to conduct oneself within this most unusual of occupations. Continue reading →

The Points Interview: J. J. Binder

Today’s Points interviewee is J. J. Binder, author of The Chicago Outfit (2003) and most recently Al Capone’s Beer Wars (2017).

519djtbjncl-_sy344_bo1204203200_Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.

I would say that the subtitle—A Complete History of Organized Crime in Chicago during Prohibition—accurately describes the book. It examines all the bootlegging gangs and the fighting between them, much of which has not been covered previously.  It also covers all the other major rackets from 1920 to 1934, including narcotics, gambling, labor racketeering, business racketeering, and prostitution. Furthermore, it explores how the upperworld—federal agencies, local agencies, and citizens groups–fought organized crime. Continue reading →

The Points Interview: Benjamin B. Roberts

Editor’s note: Today’s Points Interview is with Benjamin B. Roberts, author of the forthcoming book, Sex, Drugs, and Rock ‘n’ Roll in the Dutch Golden Age, available December 2017. Mark your calendars!
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Describe your book in terms your bartender could understand.

The main question of my book is: “What was it like to be a man coming of age in the early seventeenth century at the height of the Dutch Golden Age”. Rembrandt, who was born in 1606, grew up in this period. I wanted to know everything about being an adolescent and teenager in the seventeenth century. What did they think was cool to wear, how did they deal with their sexual urges, at what age did they start drinking alcohol, and what did they do for fun? Ultimately I wanted to find out if being a young man in the seventeenth century was any different than it is now.

One of the main conclusions from my research is that young men rebelled against the older generation with their physical appearance. They let their hair grow long (shoulder length), wore bright-colored clothing, and accessorized with ribbons, silk stockings, and high-heel shoes. Some young men even wore make-up to conceal smallpox marks they had from childhood. Continue reading →