Points Research Bibliography: Addiction Stigma, Support, and Spirituality in the Americas

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen, which was formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but is now periodically featured on the Points blog. Contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.

Does Perceived Faculty Support Moderate the Effects of Stress on Student Nurse Substance Use?

Author: Boulton, Martha Ann

Publication info: Teachers College, Columbia University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2016. 10126378.

Abstract: Purpose: Nurses who abuse substances are a threat to patients, colleagues, society, and themselves. The purpose of this research, guided by Hildegard Peplau’s Interpersonal Theory in Nursing, was to identify rates of substance misuse by student nurses and determine whether a relationship exists between stress and substance misuse and whether perceived faculty support moderates the effect of stress on substance misuse. In addition, the relationship among perception of peer use, perception of harmfulness, and substance use was explored. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational design was used to determine whether a relationship exists between stress and substance abuse and whether perceived faculty support moderates the effect of stress and substance misuse in student nurses. The convenience sample of National Student Nurses’ Association members yielded 4,033 completed surveys. Students were given the Student Nurse Stress Index and Perceived Faculty Support Scale, and asked about their past-year substance use, perceived peer substance use, and perceived harmfulness of substance use, via Survey Monkey. Responses were analyzed through exploratory data analysis and logistic regression. Results: Binge drinking was reported by 61% of the student nurses; 18% reported using marijuana; 5% reported using illegal drugs, excluding marijuana; 8% reported using non-prescribed stimulants to enhance academic performance; and 10% reported using non-prescribed prescription pills. Students with higher stress scores had a higher incidence of substance use. Most participants reported moderate faculty support. Those who had higher perceptions of faculty support tended to use fewer non-prescribed stimulants for academic enhancement. The hypothesized interaction was non-significant. This model accounted for 1.6% of the variance. Students tended to overestimate their peers’ substance use. Perceived harmfulness of a substance was related to a decrease in binge drinking, marijuana use, illegal drug use, stimulant use for academic enhancement, and non-prescribed prescription drug use. Conclusions: The results suggest that student nurses tend to use fewer drugs than their college counterparts but are slightly more likely to binge drink. Perception of peer use and perceived harmfulness accounted for 30% of the variance. They reported a moderate level of stress and used non-prescribed prescription drugs more as the stress scores increased. Perceived faculty support seems to be inversely related to use of non-prescribed stimulants and does not appear to moderate the effect of stress on substance misuse.Read More »

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Points Bibliography: Drugs Onstage, on Campus, and in National Discourse in U.S. History

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen, which was formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but is now periodically featured on the Points blog. Contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.

“Porgy and Bess” and the American Racial Imaginary, 1925–1985

Author: Noonan, Marie Ellen

Abstract: This dissertation traces the cultural history of the opera Porgy and Bess from its origins as a novel published in 1925 to a 1985 production at the Metropolitan Opera and subsequent entry into the standard repertory of American opera companies. Porgy and Bess was created by George Gershwin, DuBose Heyward, and Ira Gershwin and based on Heyward’s novel and 1927 play adaptation of that novel, both titled Porgy . First Heyward’s and later Gershwin’s insistence on employing African-American performers (rather than white performers in blackface makeup) in the stage versions of Porgy and Porgy and Bess , made these productions groundbreaking opportunities for African-American actors and singers to appear in serious roles before white critics and audiences. Their presence also insured that, in its novel and play versions, debut opera production in 1935, and revivals during the 1950s and 1970s, Porgy and Bess engendered a series of contests over the meaning of African-American racial authenticity and the politics of African-American cultural representation. This dissertation places Porgy and Bess in a broader history, stretching from the Harlem Renaissance to the post-Civil Rights Movement era, of the ways that the arena of cultural production has served as a site of struggle for African Americans seeking recognition of their human dignity and rights to full citizenship. With minimal influence over the artistic and financial means of mainstream cultural production in the performing arts for much of the twentieth century, African-American performers, intellectuals, and press commentators struggled to negotiate the opportunities available to them while challenging the representations—from pernicious to simplistic to obsolete—of African-American life and culture perpetuated through popular culture and the performing arts. Drawing on production and publicity materials, correspondence, and reviews and commentary in both mainstream white and African-American newspapers and periodicals, this dissertation explores the ways that, in successive generations, Porgy and Bess was remade by rapidly shifting attitudes about race and cultural representation. Within this remaking lies not merely the history of one opera but the history of ideas about race, culture, and nation in the twentieth-century United States.

Publication year: 2002

ISBN: 9780493631967, 0493631968

Advisor: Kelley, Robin D. G.

University/institution: New York UniversityRead More »

Happy Halloween from Points!

Editor’s Note: We at Points wish all our celebrating readers a happy Halloween! Before you head out trick-or-treating, check out this post from last year’s holiday season on “laced” candy and other drug myths. It also contains a prediction, proven correct in last year’s election, that Florida voters would pass a constitutional amendment allowing for medical marijuana.

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Beware… or don’t.

This year, medical marijuana is on the ballot in my home state of Florida, and it’s likely to pass: the latest statewide poll shows 77 percent of Floridians support the proposed constitutional amendment.

But the remaining 33 percent aren’t taking this lying down. On Monday, some county sheriffs held a press conference ostensibly on Halloween safety. Instead, surrounded by costumed children for full effect, they warned citizens about the supposed risk of marijuana edibles being passed out to unsuspecting youth.Read More »

Reminder: Now Hiring Chief Editor for ADHS’s Social History of Alcohol and Drugs

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Social History of Alcohol and Drugs
(SHAD) seeks a new chief editor to join Dr. James Kneale (editor), Dr. David Beckingham and Dr. Holly Karibo (reviews editors). The new chief editor will succeed Dr. Dan Malleck, who will stand down in 2017.

Social History of Alcohol and Drugs is a leading international journal and covers all social and cultural aspects of substance history. The journal is published twice a year on behalf of the Alcohol and Drugs History Society.

This is an exciting time for the journal as we are currently in discussion with a new academic publisher.  The new chief editor will oversee the move to more modern publication practices, including an online peer-review system and possible partnership with ProjectMUSE.Read More »

Dissertation Compilation: Drugs and Health

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen, which was formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but is now periodically featured on the Points blog. Contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.

Understanding Associations of Alcoholic Beverage Consumption with Weight Status

Author: Butler, Jennie Lauren

Abstract: Contradictory findings exist on associations between alcoholic beverage consumption with Waist Circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI). Confounding by dietary intake and variation in associations by drinking level and/or alcoholic beverage type likely contribute to mixed literature. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to shed light on inconsistencies in the alcohol and obesity literature by investigating confounding by dietary intake and associations of changes in alcohol intake with WC and BMI change. A pooled cross-sectional analysis of data from 6,018 men and 5,885 women 20 – 79 years of age from the National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003 – 2012 was conducted. Multivariable linear regression models were used to determine associations of alcohol intake with energy (kcal), macronutrient and sugar intakes (% kcal), WC and BMI. Associations of drinking with WC and BMI were examined with and without adjustment for dietary intake. Compared to non-drinkers, binge drinking men consumed less energy from food and heavy drinking women consumed less energy from non-alcoholic beverages. All drinking levels were inversely associated with carbohydrate and sugar intakes compared to non-drinking. Positive associations between binge drinking and WC in men were attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for carbohydrate and sugar intakes. Negative associations between heavy drinking and WC and BMI in women were strengthened after adjustment for carbohydrate and sugar intakes. Next a prospective study of data from 1,894 men and 2,252 women utilizing 25 years of Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study data investigating associations of 5-yr changes in alcohol intake with 5-yr WC and BMI change was conducted. Random effects linear regression models were used to determine whether 5-yr changes in drinking were associated with 5-yr WC and BMI change. In men, decreasing drinking, particularly stopping excessive drinking, was associated with lower 5-yr WC gains. In women, increasing wine intake and decreasing liquor intake was associated with lower 5-yr WC and BMI gains. Our findings highlight dietary confounders of associations of alcohol intake with WC and BMI, and heterogeneity in associations by drinking level and beverage type in US adults.Read More »

Dissertation Research: Constructing the Addict, Addiction Models, and Drug Policy in the United States

Editor’s Note:  These entries are part of an ongoing drug-related dissertation bibliography being compiled by Jonathon Erlen, which was formerly published in the Social History of Alcohol and Drugs journal but is now periodically featured on the Points blog. Contact Dr. Erlen through the link above.

Piercing the Veil of Learned Helplessness: A Transpersonal Model of Addiction

Author: Eng, Peter Anthony

Abstract: This study expands the role of transpersonal psychology in the treatment of addiction and offers a revised theoretical model that is, in effect, a spiritual alternative to the Twelve-step approach. First, the current transpersonal model of addiction is deconstructed based on three of its core suppositions: (a) that Twelve-step programs are spiritual rather than religious, (b) that they are philosophically congruent with transpersonal theory, and (c) that they are the most effective treatment for addiction. Next, aspects of two major theoretical trends in transpersonal studies, the integral and the participatory perspectives, are then implemented as foundational supports for extending the traditional transpersonal model of addiction beyond its current boundaries. Addiction research from different fields and disciplines is also referenced to ensure that the model is effective, appropriate, and relevant.Read More »

Upcoming Witness Seminar: 50 Years of the MCA and Alcohol Treatment

anniversary_imageA WITNESS SEMINAR ON 50 YEARS OF THE MCA AND ALCOHOL TREATMENT

 To mark the 50th anniversary of the MCA, we are holding a Witness Seminar at BMA House, London on 14th November 2017. This will be a unique event in the history of alcohol and health.

The MCA was founded in 1967 by a group of doctors from a range of specialties, to improve the management of patients with alcohol related harm. There have been many changes during the last 50 years, ranging from the way the relationship between alcohol and health is conceived to the policy context in which alcohol treatment takes place.  The aim of this event is to capture this evolution, with the testimony of some of the early members of the MCA and others involved in the alcohol and health field over the last 50 years. Read More »

Social History of Alcohol and Drugs: Chief Editor Vacancy

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Social History of Alcohol and Drugs (SHAD) seeks a new chief editor to join Dr. James Kneale (editor), Dr. David Beckingham and Dr. Holly Karibo (reviews editors). The new chief editor will succeed Dr. Dan Malleck, who will stand down in 2017.

Social History of Alcohol and Drugs is a leading international journal and covers all social and cultural aspects of substance history. The journal is published twice a year on behalf of the Alcohol and Drugs History Society.

This is an exciting time for the journal as we are currently in discussion with a new academic publisher.  The new chief editor will oversee the move to more modern publication practices, including an online peer-review system and possible partnership with ProjectMUSE.

We are looking for an experienced scholar in the field who will ensure editorial cohesion and the delegation of tasks to other editors. Editorial experience is desirable. There will also be an opportunity to re-shape the editorial board.  Expertise in areas of alcohol or drug history is essential and all time-periods will be considered.

Applicants are asked to send a C.V. and statement of interest to the current President of the Alcohol and Drugs History Society, Dr Tim Hickman, Lancaster Universrity (email: t.a.hickman@lancaster.ac.uk) by 1 November 2017.

The application should provide a brief statement of why the candidate is attracted to the post, an outline of what they would contribute to SHAD, and a synopsis of their relevant experience (1000 word maximum).

Further details about the journal and the Alcohol and Drugs History Society can be found at https://alcoholanddrugshistorysociety.org

Collection Exhibition: “Altered States: Sex, Drugs, and Transcendence” at Harvard’s Houghton Library

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The search for something beyond the limits of ordinary experience—for transcendence—has preoccupied humankind for millennia. Religion, the occult, philosophy, music, endorphins, sex, Ecstasy: various paths have been taken in the hope of achieving it. In Altered States: Sex, Drugs, and Transcendence in the Ludlow-Santo Domingo Library, on view at Houghton Library September 5 – December 16, one collector’s quest to document the history of this search through rare books, manuscripts, photographs, posters, prints, comics, and ephemera is celebrated.Read More »

Recent Addiction Debates: Opiate Substitution, Behavioral Addictions, and AA’s “Higher Power”

Editor’s Note: The journal Addiction occasionally features critical perspectives on debates in addiction studies. Below is a selection of recent publications dealing with topical issues in the field.

Ed DaLuke Mitcheson

Abstract

Background and Aims: Clinical guidelines from around the world recommend the delivery of psychosocial interventions as part of routine care in opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes. However, although individual studies demonstrate benefit for structured psychosocial interventions, meta-analytical reviews find no benefit for manual-based treatments beyond ‘routine counselling’.

Analysis: We consider the question of whether OST medication alone is sufficient to produce the required outcomes, or whether greater efforts should be made to provide high-quality psychosocial treatment alongside medication. In so doing, we consider the nuances and limitations of the evidence and the organizational barriers to transferring it into routine practice.

Conclusion: The evidence base for psychosocial interventions in opiate substitution treatment (OST) services can be interpreted both positively and negatively. Steering a path between overly optimistic or nihilistic interpretations of the value of psychosocial treatment in OST programmes is the most pragmatic approach. Greater attention should be paid to elements common to all psychological treatments (such as therapeutic alliance), but also to the sequencing and packaging of psychosocial elements and their linkage to peer-led interventions.


Dan
iel Kardefelt-Winther et al.

Abstract

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework.

Abstract

Background: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a world-wide recovery mutual-help organization that continues to arouse controversy. In large part, concerns persist because of AA’s ostensibly quasi-religious/spiritual orientation and emphasis. In 1990 the United States’ Institute of Medicine called for more studies on AA’s effectiveness and its mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) stimulating a flurry of federally funded research. This paper reviews the religious/spiritual origins of AA and its program and contrasts its theory with findings from this latest research.

Method: Literature review, summary and synthesis of studies examining AA’s MOBC.

Results: While AA’s original main text (‘the Big Book’, 1939) purports that recovery is achieved through quasi-religious/spiritual means (‘spiritual awakening’), findings from studies on MOBC suggest this may be true only for a minority of participants with high addiction severity. AA’s beneficial effects seem to be carried predominantly by social, cognitive and affective mechanisms. These mechanisms are more aligned with the experiences reported by AA’s own larger and more diverse membership as detailed in its later social, cognitive and behaviorally oriented publications (e.g. Living Sober, 1975) written when AA membership numbered more than a million men and women.

Conclusions: Alcoholics Anonymous appears to be an effective clinical and public health ally that aids addiction recovery through its ability to mobilize therapeutic mechanisms similar to those mobilized in formal treatment, but is able to do this for free over the long term in the communities in which people live.