Academic and Government Studies

PubMed Central Journals List: List of hundreds of open source, free use medical science and policy-related journals.

National Institute on Drug Abuse Publications List: List of hundreds of open source, free use National Institutes of Health publications.

How Bad Was Crack Cocaine?: The Economics of an Illicit Drug Market” by Steven D. Levitt and
Kevin M. Murphy: While crack cocaine seems to account for the rise in the murder rate of black youths in the 1980s, as well as more moderate increases in a wide range of adverse birth outcomes, the damaging social impact of crack fades a decade later. New research suggests that changes in behavior, crack markets, and the crack-using population offset the destructive impact of the drug over time. Rather than the drug use itself, the greatest social costs of crack are associated with prohibition-related violence.

“Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 2005” by Danice K. Eaton, et al: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable.

“Addiction and the Science of History” by David Courtwright: Aims to discuss the contributions historians have made to the addiction field, broadly construed to include licit and illicit drug use, drug policy, drug treatment and epidemiological and neuroscientific research.

“Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007” by Lloyd D. Johnston et al: Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to teenage substance use, how accurately it identifies the substance abuse problems that are emerging, and how well it comes to understand the effectiveness of policy and intervention efforts depend on the ongoing collection of valid and reliable data. Monitoring the Future (MTF), a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 45, is designed to generate such data in order to provide an accurate picture of what is happening in this domain and why, has been ongoing on an annual basis since its inception in 1975.

Prevalence and correlates of drug use disorders in Mexico” by María Elena Medina-Mora, et al: A noticeable number of Mexicans have a drug use disorder, but demand for treatment is limited, in part due to stigma. Our results indicate that there is an urgent need to organize the specialized services for persons with a substance abuse disorder according to the prevalence of dependence on different substances and the variation in prevalence in the different regions of the country.

Estimating the Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Summary” by Philip A. May and J. Phillip Gossage: Since the late 1970s, many studies have reported on the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome ( FAS) , alcohol-related birth defects ( ARBD) , and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND) . The three main types of research methods used in these studies are passive surveillance, clinic-based studies, and active case ascertainment. This article describes each of these methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, and summarizes the estimated prevalence of FAS produced by each of these approaches. The maternal risk factors associated with FAS and other alcohol-related anomalies include advanced maternal age, low socioeconomic status, frequent binge drinking, family and friends with drinking problems, and poor social and psychological indicators. Overall, the available literature points to a prevalence rate of FAS of 0.5 to 2 cases per 1,000 births in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s.

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence among U.S. College Students” by John R. Knight et al: Many college students report behaviors and symptoms that meet the diagnostic standard for alcohol abuse or dependence. In addition to strengthening prevention programs, colleges should implement new strategies for screening and early identification of high risk student drinkers and ensure that treat- ment is readily available for those with alcohol disorders.

“Age at First Alcohol Use: A Risk Factor for the Development of Alcohol Disorders” by David J. DeWit et al: First use of alcohol at ages 11–14 greatly heightens the risk of progression to the development of alcohol disorders and therefore is a reasonable target for intervention strategies that seek to delay first use as a means of averting problems later in life.

“Hallucinogens on the Internet: A Vast New Source of Underground Drug Information” by John H. Halpern and Harrison G. Pope: Using the Internet, potential hallucinogen users can bypass traditional channels of medical information and learn in great detail how to obtain and use numerous drugs with unknown hazards.

“Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys” by Louisa Degenhardt, et al: Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent cohorts, who also have higher levels of illegal drug use and extensions in the period of risk for initiation.

Drugs and Money: Prices, Affordability and Cost Containment by M.N.G. Dukes, F.M. Haaijer-Ruskamp, C.P. de Joncheere, and A.H. Rietveld, eds: “This present seventh edition aims, as its predecessors have done, to provide policy makers and regulators with a compact and practical review of the various approaches which have been developed and tested to date in an effort to contain the overall costs of pharmaceutical services and drug treatment. New measures, enjoying a greater or lesser degree of success, have continued to emerge during the ’nineties and the end is not yet in sight. In this small volume particular emphasis is again placed on those principles which may prove helpful in containing costs without introducing a disproportionate risk of adverse consequences. The true art of good housekeeping in this field is clearly to ensure that drugs continue to benefit society wherever they can, while eliminating every form of waste of public funds.” (World Health Organization)

Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961: Expresses the hope that adequate resources will be made available to provide assistance in the fight against the illicit traffic, to those countries which desire and request it, particularly in the form of expert advisers and of training, including training courses for national officials. (United Nations)

International Convention Against Doping in Sport, 2005: Determined to take further and stronger cooperative action aimed at the elimination of doping in sport, Recognizing that the elimination of doping in sport is dependent in part upon progressive harmonization of anti-doping standards and practices in sport and cooperation at the national and global levels, Adopts this Convention on this nineteenth day of October 2005. (UNESCO)

The Illicit Drug Trade in the United Kingdom by Andrew Richman, ed, 2007: In late 2005, the UK Home Office commissioned Matrix Research and Consultancy (now Matrix Knowledge Group) and the London School of Economics to undertake a drug trafficker and dealer study. The aim of the research was to understand how high level drug dealers operate and how markets for illicit drugs work. (UK Home Office)

War on Drugs: Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy by Asma Jahangir et al., eds, 2011: The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and 40 years after President Nixon launched the US government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed. (United Nations)

World Drug Report 2010: In 2009, the United Nations Member States decided to make further and decisive progress, within a decade, in controlling illicit drug supply and demand. Many illicit drug markets have reached global dimensions and require control strategies on a comparable scale. In that context, there is a need to better understand these transnational markets and the manner in which they operate. This year’s World Drug Report is a contribution towards that objective. It opens with an analytical discussion of three key transnational drug markets: the markets for heroin, cocaine and amphetamine-type stimulants. The market discussion is followed by a presentation of statistical trends for all major drug categories. The latest information on drug production, seizures and consumption is presented. Finally, there is a discussion on the relationship between drug trafficking and instability. (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)

Lexicon of Alcohol and Drug Terms, 1994: This lexicon aims to provide a set of definitions of terms concerning alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, which will be useful to clinicians, administrators, researchers, and others interested in this field. (World Health Organization)

Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors by Majid Ezzati et al, eds, 2004: This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the health effects caused by a range of exposures that are known to be hazardous to human health. Its origins lie in the expressed need by policy and advocacy groups for comparable data on risk factor exposure and effects in populations. The only previous attempt to quantify risk factor burden worldwide, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 1990 project, was affected by a lack of conceptual and methodological comparability across risk factors; the analysis of each risk was constrained by its own disciplinary tradition. It nonetheless stimulated debate about the crucial role of risk factor assessment as a cornerstone of the evidence base for public health action: for instance, the leading risk factor in 1990, malnutrition, accounted for substantially more disease burden worldwide than the leading cause of disease at that time, acute lower respiratory infections. (World Health Organization)

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