CFP: Cannabis Geographies at the Association of American Geographers Annual Conference

Editor’s Note: Special bonus post this week! Please see below for a call for papers for a very exciting conference that’s being held in April 2020. Contact information below.

Association of American Geographers Annual Conference

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Denver, CO

April 6-10, 2020

Panel: Cannabis Geographies

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The NFL’s Pain Management Problem

Editor’s Note: Today’s post comes from contributing editor Bob Beach. Beach is a Ph.D. candidate in history at the University of Albany, SUNY.

The National Football League (NFL) has a pain management problem. It also has a marijuana problem. The league currently regulates marijuana use among its players as part of its Policy and Program on Substances of Abuse. Revised in 2018, the program tests players for marijuana (and other “substances of abuse”) once every year during a set time (during the offseason). 

The threshold to trigger a positive test is a relatively small 35 nanograms of THC per milliliter. To get a sense of how much that is relative to common testing thresholds, one source suggests that, “following a single marijuana use, THC is unlikely to be detected in the urine beyond 3 days at the 50 ng/ml cut-off level and beyond 7 days for the 20 ng/mL cutoff level.” If a player fails a test, they face fines, suspensions, and more frequent and random testing. 

Often touted more as an “intelligence test” than a drug test, at least for marijuana (are players smart enough to stop smoking weed prior to the testing window?), the program still ensnares new players every season, including David Irving, who recently quit football live on Instagram while smoking weed, following a failed drug test which triggered an indefinite suspension by the league.

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The Mysterious World of CBD: Part II

Editor’s Note: Today’s post comes from Mike Luce, co-founder of High Yield Insights, one of the cannabis industry’s first marketing and strategy firms. This is the second of his two-part series on the mysterious world–and spurious marketing–of CBD, a product I’m sure you’ve seen advertised and made available nearly everywhere. 

 

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Mike Luce, of High Yield Insights

If CBD is so popular, why don’t we know more about it? This post, the second in a two-part series, examines consumer perceptions and the not-always-aligned realities of CBD products on the market. For consumers seeking the many positive purported benefits of the suddenly fashionable cannabis compound, there’s little easily-accessible information. Worse yet, we may be witnessing an explosion of misunderstanding and misinformation as an epidemic of lung injuries continues across the US. 

 

Poisoned by black market products, nearly a thousand people have fallen ill across the country. As of this writing, illegal e-cigarettes have been implicated in at least 14 deaths. In over forty states, people have been struck by severe lung injuries from vaping, often at frightening speed. While research is still underway to isolate the specific substance or substances responsible, many hold black market THC e-cigarettes responsible. Something changed in the composition of the oil used by many black marketeers to fill vaporizer cartridges. Initial evidence suggests contamination by fungicides and the misuse of thickening agents to disguise diluted product. (I wrote about the outbreak in mid-September.) Either as a direct result, or in some unknown interaction with tobacco e-cigarettes as well, vaping has been turned deadly.

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The Mysterious World of CBD: Part I

Editor’s Note: Today’s post comes from Mike Luce, co-founder of High Yield Insights, one of the cannabis industry’s first marketing and strategy firms. Here he presents the first in his two-part series on the mysterious world–and spurious marketing–of CBD, a product I’m sure you’ve seen advertised and made available nearly everywhere. His follow-up will run on Tuesday next week. Stay tuned!

Americans are consumed by fads in food, drink, and wellness. We swing from one subject of fascination to another: antioxidants, açai, resveratrol, fat free, healthy fats, active cultures, spiked seltzers, organic, biodynamic, anything free range, you name it.

Screenshot 2019-09-26 at 8.42.32 AMYet the latest fad to hit the USA Today-level is unique in post-WWII America. Interest in CBD, the three letters you see everywhere, has reached a fever pitch. This does necessarily set CBD apart from other fads in consumer goods, but hitting the mainstream radar so fast and so hard puts CBD in the upper echelon. The potential of CBD is largely unknown and the future scale of what’s starting to be known as the CBD industry is unpredictable. Consumers, including those using CBD today, poorly grasp the nature of CBD, lack any precise understanding of how CBD works and what it does, and express significant concerns about safety. Yet forecasts place the CBD market at $15-20 billion by 2025. Contrast those figures with the latest numbers by some household products, and CBD’s estimates truly pop: 

Sales of CBD will net out close to $5 billion in 2019, a puny number in comparison. But the last industry on the list above can’t expect more than low single digit annual growth rate. To reach the market size forecasts, CBD will experience compound annual growth rates over 100 percent. That new users will drive that growth should be obvious.

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Maybe Next Year: The Failure to Legalize Adult-Use Cannabis in New York

Editor’s Note: Today’s post comes from contributing editor Bob Beach, our resident New Yorker who provides insights into the his state’s twisted path to potential cannabis legalization. Beach is a Ph.D. candidate in history at the University of Albany, SUNY.

On August 28, 2019, New York State officially decriminalized marijuana. Most saw decriminalization as an important step toward the even more equitable legalization measure that failed to pass the Democrat-led state legislature this year, but which seems inevitable given recent trends in legalizing (with the recent addition of Illinois this year). Particularly in light of the inevitable comparisons to Illinois, others are making connections to the “eerily similar” debates over decriminalization in New York in 1977 at the height of the state-level decriminalization wave that was then spreading throughout the country. During that year the New York State legislature passed, and then-Governor Hugh Carey signed, what was at the time the ninth state-level decriminalization measure in the country.

(Current New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, and then-Governor Hugh Carey)

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Points Bookshelf: “The African Roots of Marijuana” by Chris Duvall

Editor’s Note: Today’s book review comes from Nick Johnson. Johnson holds a bachelor’s degree in journalism from Southern Illinois University and a master’s degree in American history from Colorado State University. A former freelance journalist in his home state of Illinois, Johnson now lives in Fort Collins, Colorado, and works as associate editor of the online Colorado Encyclopedia. He is the author of Grass Roots: A History of Cannabis in the American West.

Screenshot 2019-07-02 at 8.52.56 AMDespite a vast and ever-growing scholarly literature on cannabis, the African experience with the plant is too often glossed over or entirely neglected. One gets a sense of this reading some of Chris Duvall’s earlier work, including the global history Cannabis (2015). But in his most recent book, The African Roots of Marijuana (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019), the geographer hammers this point home with an infallible rigor that should convince other cannabis scholars to more closely examine the biases reflected in their own work.

Duvall’s most pervasive and important argument in the book is that Europeans’ historic preference for hemp over drug cannabis was rooted in racist interpretations of cultural ecologies, and those interpretations became the foundation for much of what is known (or assumed) about the plant today. In Europe, where ecological conditions favored hemp, cannabis was known as the fiber-yielding plant of productive industrialists; in South Asia and Africa, where ecological conditions favored drug-producing cannabis, “the plant was valued principally to supply psychoactive drugs” (103). When nineteenth-century Europeans began traveling Africa under the oppressive shadow of colonialism, they saw the use of cannabis drugs as an unnatural corruption of the plant itself as well as an indicator of Africans’ supposed backwardness and inferiority (10-11). This perspective then became embedded in Western understandings of cannabis and remains lodged there today, despite a robust academic literature on the role of racism and colonialism in the development of scientific thought.

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Reefer Madness in France: Part II

Editor’s Note: Today’s post comes from contributing editor Dr. David A. Guba, Jr., of Bard Early College in Baltimore. 

One of the earliest cases of “arab aliené: folie hasishique” I’ve found thus far in my research is from Algiers in the summer of 1857. On August 22 of that year, a twenty-year-old Muslim man called Soliman-ben-Mohammed attacked a crowd of Jewish Algerians gathered in the city’s central market for the Sabbath, wounding seven and killing one. Eyewitnesses described the killer as being “crazed by a fury” and “prey to unspeakable exasperations” as he wildly clubbed the fleeing crowd of men, women, and children. It was only when a group of nearby Frenchmen, “hearing the cries of the victims, seized the madman and disarmed him,” bringing the violent scene to a close.[1]

Screenshot 2019-06-27 09.13.57The most comprehensive record of the event and trial is found in a series of articles published in the Medical Gazette of Algeria in September of 1857 by Dr.’s Alphonse Bertherand and Noël-Eugène Latour, both with the French army and Civil Hospital in Algiers.[2] During his interrogation Soliman stated that he neither remembered the attack nor recognized his victims. He recalled leaving work earlier that day, smoking kif and drinking wine and anisette for several hours at a café in Algiers. He even recalled getting into a small altercation with several Jewish patrons at that café.  But, “visibly regretful and shedding tears,” Soliman again and again claimed he never intended to kill anyone and remembered nothing of the fatal attack.[3] 

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